PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION
Since the publication of the first (2000) and second (2006) editions of this book there have been a number of revisions to those federal laws,
regulations, and policies that affect IACUCs.
In some cases these changes have simply
reflected common, best practices of IACUCs,
while others have directed IACUCs to implement new practices. Of note, the 8th edition of
the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory
Animals, published in 2011, added significant
context for IACUC policies and practices.
Examples of new expectations for IACUCs outlined in the 8th edition of the Guide include:
application of experimental and humane endpoints; establishing mechanisms for communication of unexpected outcomes to the IACUC;
enhanced review of studies involving physical
restraint, multiple survival surgery, and food
and fluid regulation, and the use of non-phar-maceutical grade compounds in animals; and
The 8th edition of the Guide offers substantial definition with respect to animal care
program management responsibility. In this
regard, a collaborative relationship between
the IACUC, the attending veterinarian, and the
institutional official is expected, with the institutional official bearing ultimate responsibility
for the program. As a result, the role of many
IACUCs may evolve from being the presumed
agent with sole responsibility, to that of a
key team member with shared responsibility.
Consequently, the IACUC retains an essential and central role that is supported by the
attending veterinarian and institutional official.
Earlier editions of The IACUC Handbook
exclusively focused on the IACUC within
the context of the United States. While still
U.S.-centric, this edition includes a chapter
that offers the reader an international per-
spective on how an IACUC or other style
of review can function beyond the borders
of the United States. Though many general
principles of animal care and use are the
same, operational aspects may vary between
countries or regions; thus, it is hoped that
this approach will provide a basis for consid-
eration of interpretation of relevant issues in
a way that can be applied broadly.
In 2013 the American Veterinary Medical
Association published updated guidelines for
the euthanasia of animals. Those guidelines
have been incorporated into this edition as
needed. As with many guidelines, those related to euthanasia have evolved in response to
new scientific information and the cumulative
professional experience of those in the field.
This third edition of The IACUC Handbook
builds upon the foundation laid in the first
two editions and provides not only new
information on existing laws, regulations, pol-
icies, and “how to” advice, but also features
an updated survey of IACUC practices from
institutions around the nation. In this way,
readers benefit from the combined experience
of numerous IACUCs and some sense of ‘best
practices’ can be ascertained. In some chap-
ters we have permitted the repetition of items
that are similar to those found in other chap-
ters. These have been cross-referenced to pro-
vide a broader perspective of expert opinions.
We hope all of this will be of value to you.
To ensure that the contributions of our
authors are precise, outside review was con-
ducted beyond the editorial review we provided.
In this regard we thank Carol Clarke of USDA/
APHIS/AC and Patricia Brown, Susan Silk, and
Lori Hampton of NIH/OLAW who provided
reviews of all chapters for concordance with
their respective regulations and policies. APHIS/
AC policies, which are in the online Animal
Care Resource Guide, are interpretive rules that
for practical purposes have the legal standing
of the regulations they help clarify. NIH/OLAW
offers guidance on the interpretation of the PHS
Policy and the recommendations of the Guide by
providing online responses to Frequently Asked
Questions. In some cases NIH/OLAW will not
approve an animal welfare Assurance until the
Assurance is consistent with the information
in the Frequently Asked Questions. Though
intended to be a central part of the animal care
responsibility triad, along with the attending
veterinarian and the Institutional Official, the
IACUC remains a key operational element. The
IACUC has a unique place in the oversight of
animal care and use activities for most organi-
zations in the U.S. It is a self-regulatory com-
mittee, representing its institution to the fed-
eral government. Equally importantly, it helps
represent to the public the basic standards of
animal care and concerns for animal welfare
to which researchers, institutions, and labo-
ratory animal science professionals subscribe.
Yet, if self- regulation is to be continued, then
we must go the extra mile and strive to reach
even higher standards of animal care and use.
For that to occur, institutions and their IACUCs
must be leaders, not followers.
INTRODUCTION TO THE THIRD EDITION
Dr. Patricia A. Brown and Dr. Chester A. Gipson
This handbook provides a comprehensive collection of best practices; all of which are com-
14 OCTOBER 2014 ; ALNmag.com
OPERATIONS | Jerald Silverman, DVM, Mark A. Suckow, DVM, and Sreekant Murthy, Ph.D.
The IACUC Handbook, THIRD EDITION
A comprehensive collection of best practices